Police said Operation Arnos was part of a major crackdown on “industrial scale” benefit fraud, in a BBC report.
The authorities added that 14 people were arrested in connection with suspected mortgage fraud, benefit fraud and money laundering, with fraudulent documentation also found.
They said an organised crime group was behind the fraud, which could be worth as much as £4.6m.
A man was also arrested in connection with cannabis cultivation, which included several hundred plants with a potential street value of about £200,000.
Assistant chief constable Gillian MacDonald said the offensive had been planned since late last year and confirmed the operation was the largest ever conducted in Scotland.
She added: “People have been claiming benefits to which they are not entitled and using false IDs but this activity has been orchestrated by individuals who are reaping millions of pounds from the benefits system while also claiming benefits themselves.
“We fully expect there will be more arrests as a result of this operation over the coming weeks and months.”
The sting involved a total of 37 premises with officers looking for evidence of people trafficking and illegal immigration.
To date about £1.5m of fraudulent benefit claims have already been stopped.
Bob Gallacher, senior investigations leader at the Department for Work and Pensions warned this type of criminality was occurring in cities throughout the UK.
“Benefit fraud is theft – it takes taxpayers’ money from our vital public services and puts it into the pockets of criminals.
“We will continue working with our partners to investigate and stop these offences,” he said.